Wednesday, June 22, 2011

IRS Disses Doggie Diplomas and Other Developments

FISHER v. U.S., Cite as 107 AFTR 2d 2011-XXXX, 04/19/2011

There has already been a partial decision in this case which I mentioned in a previous post.  The government got summary judgement on whether a restrictions on transferability discount would apply to a single asset family limited partnership.  Apparently that was not the end of the story. After all there are still discounts for lack of marketability (even if they let you sell the damn thing nobody would want to buy it anyway) and minority interest.  This particular decision, which is also not the end of the story is about evidence.  The taxpayers want to bring into evidence what the IRS was originally willing to allow.  The IRS doesn't think that relevant.

The present Motion in Limine seeks to preclude Plaintiff from introducing evidence of the minority interest and lack of marketability discounts used by the IRS in arriving at the February 13, 2006 assessments. See generally dkt. no. 101. The United States contends that because this case involves a de novo review of the fair market value of the property at issue, the calculations of the IRS at the administrative stage are irrelevant. Id. at 4. Plaintiff contends that evidence should be allowed in rebuttal if Mark Mitchell, CPA (“Mitchell”), the United States' expert, testifies that the minority discount should be seven percent rather than the nineteen percent purportedly used by the IRS in the February 13, 2006 assessment. Dkt. No. 105 at 3.



In this case, introduction of evidence of the minority interest discount used by the IRS in the February 13, 2006 assessment is irrelevant. The issue is what the correct minority interest discount is, not what it was previously determined to be. Accord. Janis, 428 U.S. at 440; see also R.E. Dietz Corp. v. United States, 939 F.2d 1, 4 [68 AFTR 2d 91-5238] (2d Cir. 1991) (“The factual and legal analysis employed by the Commissioner is of no consequence to the district court.”). The previously used minority interest discount has no baring on factfinder's de novo determination of the property's fair market value. Because evidence of the previously used minority interest discount is irrelevant, it must be excluded.

This reminds me a little of the Levy case.  They were starting with a 30% discount and took it to a jury which allowed them 0%. (It was also a refund case so being stuck with the 30% was actually as bad as it could get.) In that case the taxpayers were trying to keep out the amount the family actually ultimately received.

Private Letter Ruling 201117036

This was an organization formed to provide credit counselling services that was denied exempt status.

Based on the information you provided in your application and supporting documentation, you are not operated for exempt purposes under section 501(c)(3) of the Code. An organization cannot be recognized as exempt under section 501(c)(3) unless it shows that it is both organized and operated exclusively for charitable, educational, or other exempt purpose. You failed to meet the operational test of section 1.501(c)(3)-1(a)(1) and section 1.501(c)(3)-1(c)(1) of the Regulations because you are organized for substantial private and commercial purposes, and operate in the same manner as a private commercial entity.



To qualify under IRC section 501(c)(3), an organization cannot have a non-exempt purpose that is more than insubstantial. Your primary activity is the provision of pre-bankruptcy certification and post-bankruptcy counseling for fees. You devote most of your time and activities to selling bankruptcy certifications to the general public under the guise of financial counseling. You have not shown that you are operated exclusively to educate individuals for the purpose of improving or developing their capabilities. Rather, the fact that no educational materials will be provided unless the client registers for a counseling session is an indication of operation for a primarily business purpose. Your primary focus is to expand your client base and to issue bankruptcy certificates as quickly as possible in order to generate revenue. Analogous to the organization described in Better Business Bureau of Washington D.C., Inc. v. United States supra, your activities appear to have an underlying commercial motive that distinguishes your educational activities from that carried out by a university or educational institution.

If you want to be recognized as a charity maybe you could kind of like do something charitable.

Private Letter Ruling 201117035

Here the IRS shows its narrow speciesism.  Among the possible purposes that qualify for exemption is "education".  It turns out, though, that it has to be human beings who are being educated.  Doggy University (the name I made up for the anonymous ORG in this ruling) does not qualify.

ORG holds dog obedience training classes, and awards the dogs a degree after completion of the course and also award, them prizes at the shows events. While the owners received some instruction as to the training of the dogs, it is the dog that is primary object of the training.





The nature of obedience training requires that the owner of the dog appear at the classes so that the dog is trained to respond to his owner's commands. While the owner receives some instruction in how to give commands to his dog, it is the dog that is the primary object of the training. The dog is also the primary object of the subsequent training in sporting and show events. Therefore, the organization's training program for dogs is not within the meaning of educational as defined in the regulations.


Dog training in the manner you describe is not exempt purposes as described in IRC section 501(c)(3), because the organization's training program for dogs as well as its dog shows is not within the meaning of educational as defined in the regulations . In fact, you primarily serve the private interests of the dog owners and thus not operated exclusively for 501(c)(3) purposes.



Private Letter Ruling 201117011

Taxpayer was granted 120-day extension from date this letter was issued, to make election under Code Sec. 469(c)(7)(A); to treat all of his interests in rental real estate as single rental real estate activity effective stated year.


Rental activities are "per se" passive.  There is an exception for people in real estate trades or businesses if they meet certain requirements.  They still have to materially participate in the properties.  Absent the election to aggregate the material participation standard can be challenging when there are multiple properties.  Taxpayers who have failed to make the election can sometimes get relief with a late election as the taxpayer in this ruling did.

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